If Eid lands on Jum’ah, is it obligatory for a person to pray Jum’ah or is he exempted from having to attend?
According to al-Mudawwanh; which represents the relied upon narrations of Imam Maliki, Imam Malik was asked about the permission not to attend Jum’ah if it lands of one of the two Eids:
قلت) ما قول مالك إذا اجتمع الأضحى والجمعة أو الفطر والجمعة فصلى رجل من أهل الحضر العيد مع الإمام ثم أراد أن لا يشه الجمعة هل يضع ذلك عنه شهوده صلاة العيد ما وجب عليه من إتيان الجمعة (قال) لا كان مالك يقول لا يضع ذلك عنه ما وجب عليه من إتيان الجمعة وقال مالك ولم يبلغني أن أحداً أذن لأهل العوالي إلا عثمان ولم يكن مالك يرى الذي فعل عثمان وكان يرى أن من وجبت عليه الجمعة لا يضعها عنه اذن الإمام وإن شهد مع الإمام قبل ذلك من يومه ذلك عيداً وبلغني ذلك عن مالك
I asked Ibn Qasim [that is, Sahnun (a student of Ibn Qasim) asked Ibn Qasim (the main student of Imam Maliki) ]:
“What is the opinion of Malik regarding the case when Eid al-Adha or Eid al-Fitr occur on the same day as Ju’mah, and a person (who is a local resident) prays Eid with the Imam then wishes not to attend the Jum’ah, does his attending the Eid prayer remove the obligation of attending the Jum’ah prayer ?”
(He, Ibn Qasim) replied:
“No! Malik’s opinion was that it does not remove the obligation of attending Jum’ah prayer”. Malik said “ It has not reached me that anyone permitted the people of al-A’wali [ people within the distance in which Jum’ah is obligatory on them to attend , which refers to people of residency] except Uthman”. Malik did not agree with that opinion which Uthman opted for, but instead opted for the opinion that those who were obligated to attend Jum’ah , Eid did not remove the obligation even with the permission to do so by the ruler……. and this is what I heard from Malik.”
Based on this, the major books of Maliki fiqh such as Mukhtasar Khalil are in accordance to the position of al-Mudawwanah.
Commenting on the text of Mukhtasar Khalil Shaykh al-Dusuqi [1230 A.H] mentions in his marginal commentary:
Verily when Eid occurs on the day of Jum’ah it is not permissible for a person who attended Eid to not attend Jum’ah ……regardless if that person’s house (who attended Eid) is within the city or outside of it [that is the distance in which Jum’ah is still obligatory on them].
Many of the major books mention this matter and because it is so famous amongst the scholars of the Maliki madhab there is no need to quote them extensively. Also as a rule, what is stated in the Mudawannah is the opinion that is obligatory to give fatwa by and stands as the rule to be followed.
And Allah Knows Best